Cooling sources Sources of passive cooling are more varied and complex than passive heating, which comes from a single, predictable source — solar radiation. Varying combinations of innovative envelope design, air movement, evaporative cooling, earth-coupled thermal mass, lifestyle choices and acclimatisation are required to provide adequate cooling comfort in most Australian climate zones. Additional mechanical cooling may be required in hot humid climates and in extreme conditions in many climates, especially as climate change leads to higher temperatures during the daytime and overnight.
Facility Layout - Objectives, Design and Factors Affecting the Layout Facility Layout - Objectives, Design and Factors Affecting the Layout Introduction For an organization to have an effective and efficient manufacturing unit, it is important that special attention is given to facility layout.
Facility layout is an arrangement of different aspects of manufacturing in an appropriate manner as to achieve desired production results. Facility layout considers available space, final product, safety of users and facility and convenience of operations.
An effective facility layout ensures that there is a smooth and steady flow of production material, equipment and manpower at minimum cost.
Facility layout looks at physical allocation of space for economic activity in the plant.
Therefore, main objective of the facility layout planning is to design effective workflow as to make equipment and workers more productive.
Facility Layout Objective A model facility layout should be able to provide an ideal relationship between raw material, equipment, manpower and final product at minimal cost under safe and comfortable environment.
An efficient and effective facility layout can cover following objectives: To provide optimum space to organize equipment and facilitate movement of goods and to create safe and comfortable work environment.
To promote order in production towards a single objective To reduce movement of workers, raw material and equipment To promote safety of plant as well as its workers To facilitate extension or change in the layout to accommodate new product line or technology upgradation To increase production capacity of the organization An organization can achieve the above-mentioned objective by ensuring the following: Better training of the workers and supervisors.
Creating awareness about of health hazard and safety standards Optimum utilization of workforce and equipment Encouraging empowerment and reducing administrative and other indirect work Factors affecting Facility Layout Facility layout designing and implementation is influenced by various factors.
These factors vary from industry to industry but influence facility layout. These factors are as follows: The design of the facility layout should consider overall objectives set by the organization. Optimum space needs to be allocated for process and technology.
A proper safety measure as to avoid mishaps. Overall management policies and future direction of the organization Design of Facility Layout Principles which drive design of the facility layout need to take into the consideration objective of facility layout, factors influencing facility layout and constraints of facility layout.
These principles are as follows: Facility layout should provide flexibility for expansion or modification. Optimum space utilization reduces the time in material and people movement and promotes safety.
Capital investment should be minimal when finalizing different models of facility layout. Design Layout Techniques There are three techniques of design layout, and they are as follows: Two or Three Dimensional Templates: This technique utilizes development of a scaled-down model based on approved drawings.
This technique utilizes computer technology in designing the facility layout by sequencing out all activities and then arranging them in circular or in a straight line. This kind of technique is used for assembly line. Types of Facility Layout There are six types of facility layout, and they are as follows:Farm-scale ethanol fuel production plant Design Report The Gildred/Butterfield Fuel Alcohol Plant Gildred/Butterfield Limited Partnership Acknowledgements.
Facility layout and design is an important component of a business's overall operations, both in terms of maximizing the effectiveness of the production process and meeting the needs of employees. To be comfortable, buildings in all Australian climates require some form of cooling at some time of the year.
There are many ways you can design or modify your home to achieve comfort through passive (non-mechanical) cooling, as well as hybrid approaches which utilise mechanical cooling systems.
Plant layout defined as the physical arrangement of everything needed for the product or service (including machines, personnel, raw materials, and finished goods).
The eight factors affecting plant layout are as follows: 1. Man Factor 2.
Material Factor 3. Machinery Factor 4. Movement Factor 5. Waiting Factor 6. Service Factor 7. Building Factor 8. Flexibility Factor.
Whatever be the type of layout being contemplated, the following factors are to be considered. A Manual for the Design and Construction of Water Harvesting Schemes for Plant Production.
by Will Critchley - Conservation Agronomist Centre for Development Cooperation Services Free University, Amsterdam.