In the Arkansas Delta around the time of the Great Warmost black farmers were sharecroppers and illiterate, as were many poor whites.
Elaine Race Riot of aka: Elaine Race Massacre The Elaine Massacre was by far the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and possibly the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States. Although the exact number is unknown, estimates of the number of African Americans killed by whites range into the hundreds; five white people lost their lives.
The conflict began on the night of September 30,when approximately African Americans, mostly sharecroppers on the plantations of white landowners, attended a meeting of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America at a church in Hoop Spur Phillips Countythree miles north of Elaine.
The purpose of the meeting, one of several by black sharecroppers in the Elaine area during the previous months, was to obtain better payments for their cotton crops from the white plantation owners who dominated the area during the Jim Crow era.
Black sharecroppers were often exploited in their efforts to collect payment for their cotton crops. With labor conflicts escalating throughout the country at the end of World War Igovernment and business interpreted the demands of labor increasingly as the work of foreign ideologies, such as Bolshevism, that threatened the foundation of the American economy.
Thrown into this highly combustible mix was the return to the United States of black soldiers who often exhibited a less submissive attitude within the Jim Crow society around them. Unions such as the Progressive Farmers represented a threat not only to the tenet of white supremacy but also to the basic concepts of capitalism.
Although the United States was on the winning side of World War I, supporters of American capitalism found in communism a new menace to their security.
With the success of the Russian Revolution, stopping the spread of international communism was seen as the duty of all loyal Americans. Arkansas governor Charles Hillman Brough told a St. Leaders of the Hoop Spur union had placed armed guards around the church to prevent disruption of their meeting and intelligence gathering by white opponents.
Though accounts of who fired the first shots are in sharp conflict, a shootout in front of the church on the night of September 30,between the armed black guards around the church and three individuals whose vehicle was parked in front of the church resulted in the death of W.
The next morning, the Phillips County sheriff sent out a posse to arrest those suspected of being involved in the shooting. Brough, requesting that U. Brough responded by gaining permission from the Department of War to send more than battle-tested troops from Camp Pikeoutside of Little Rock Pulaski County.
After troops arrived in Elaine on the morning of October 2,the white mobs began to depart the area and return to their homes. The military placed several hundred African Americans in makeshift stockades until they could be questioned and vouched for by their white employers.
Evidence shows that the mobs of whites slaughtered African Americans in and around Elaine. The committee met with Gov. Brough, who had ridden on the train with the troops and accompanied them on a march to the Hoop Spur area. There is no danger of any lynching….
The white citizens of the county deserve unstinting praise for their actions in preventing mob violence.
The white leaders put forward their view that black residents had been about to revolt. Two white members of the Phillips County posse, T. Smiddy, stated in sworn affidavits in that they committed acts of torture at the Phillips County jail and named others who had also participated in the torture.
On October 31,the Phillips County grand jury charged African Americans with crimes stemming from the racial disturbances. The charges ranged from murder to nightriding, a charge akin to terroristic threatening. The trials began the next week. White attorneys from Helena were appointed by Circuit Judge J.
Jackson to represent the first twelve black men to go to trial. Attorney Jacob Fink, who was appointed to represent Frank Hicks, admitted to the jury that he had not interviewed any witnesses.
He made no motion for a change of venue, nor did he challenge a single prospective juror, taking the first twelve called. By November 5,the first twelve black men given trials had been convicted of murder and sentenced to die in the electric chair. As a result, sixty-five others quickly entered plea-bargains and accepted sentences of up to twenty-one years for second-degree murder.
Others had their charges dismissed or ultimately were not prosecuted. Bratton, hired the Little Rock law firm of George C.About the Author: William M. Tuttle, Jr., is Professor of History and American Studies at the University of Kansas.
His books include Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of ; W.E.B. Du Bois; with David M. Katzman, Plain Folk; and with Mary Beth Norton and others, A People and A Nation/5(2).
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The Elaine Massacre was by far the deadliest racial confrontation in Arkansas history and possibly the bloodiest racial conflict in the history of the United States. While its deepest roots lay in the state’s commitment to white supremacy, the events in Elaine (Phillips County) stemmed from tense race relations and growing concerns about labor unions.
The War At Home: Race Violence in the Red Summer of By Matthew Schaible Red Summer of , traces the riot’s origins to the Great Migration. He argued the The Chicago Race Riot While officially open to whites and blacks, Chicago’s beaches operated under de-. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of (Blacks in the New World) at arteensevilla.com Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users.
Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of (Blacks in the New World) [William M. Tuttle] on arteensevilla.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An examination of urban-industrial life in the early twentieth century looks at the Chicago riot of and explores post-World War I racial strife.