How to Write a Summary of an Article? Ali Hussain Al-Attas Date: By definition, junk food is pre-prepared food that has low nutritional value and is high in calories.
Fast food consumption is associated with a higher calorie intake, primarily from carbohydrates and fat. Patients consuming fast food also have higher sodium intake and higher interdialytic weight gains. In addition, fast food consumption is associated with higher serum phosphorus levels.
Our patient sample was drawn from all 44 chronic hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. While our subjects are more likely to be black than dialysis patients nationally, the large sample size ensured that white patients were well represented.
Other demographic and medical characteristics are comparable to patients nationally. To further enhance the precision of our results, we obtained multiple dietary recalls and multiple measures of nutritional parameters for each patient.
Our results highlight the nutritional trade-offs inherent in fast food consumption among dialysis patients. Fast food may be a convenient, inexpensive, and palatable way to increase caloric intake. However, the nutrient quality of fast food is suboptimal. While inadequate intakes of both calories and protein contribute to malnutrition, we found that consumption of fast food was associated with higher caloric intake but not with higher protein intake.
Excess caloric intake may contribute to obesity while excess sodium intake may contribute to interdialytic weight gain. Both of these, along with the hyperphosphatemia and higher saturated fat intake that we observed, may in turn increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Although only a small percentage of the general population has end stage renal disease, hyperphosphatemia may contribute to cardiovascular and bone disease among the 10 million Americans with moderate kidney disease. However, we found that patients who consumed 0.
Although there was a trend toward a higher dietary phosphorus intake with higher frequencies of fast food consumption, this was not statistically significant Table 3. Yet, there was a significant higher serum phosphorus level with higher frequencies of fast food consumption Table 4. We speculate that this paradoxical finding may be due to the increasing presence of easily absorbed phosphorus-containing food additives in processed foods.
If such additives are not adequately represented in nutrient composition databases, then nutrient analytic software such as the ESHA Food Processor SQL software that we used may underestimate actual dietary phosphorus intake.
As a result, neither patients nor dietitians may be able to accurately estimate the phosphorus content of fast foods. We recommend that fast food purveyors analyze menu items to make phosphorus content data available to the public. Limitations of our study include a modest sample size, exclusion of patients with higher albumin levels, a focus on a single geographic area, and lack of long-term followup.
The topics addressed by this study should be examined among other patients and geographical areas. In conclusion, fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients and is associated with a higher intake of kilocalories, carbohydrates, fats, and sodium and adverse changes in phosphorus and fluid balance.
We recommend that fast food purveyors analyze their menu offerings for phosphorus content, prominently display nutrient content at point of purchase, and provide food labels on fast food items to help patients comply with instructions to restrict dietary sodium and phosphorus intake.
Further work is needed to understand the long-term benefits and risks of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.
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Potential conflicts of interest: Fast-food consumption among US adults and children: J Am Diet Assoc.
Increasing body mass index and obesity in the incident ESRD population. J Am Soc Nephrol.
Validation of comorbid conditions on the end-stage renal disease medical evidence report. Death risk in hemodialysis patients: Am J Kidney Dis.
Malnutrition in hemodialysis patients:Junk Food Prevalence and its Physical and Mental Implications Introduction: A study conducted lately, showed that junk food affects the function and structure of the brain which could change peoples’ behavior, especially that of children.
The highest prevalence rates of childhood obesity have been observed in developed countries; however, its prevalence is Interestingly authoritarian restriction of “junk-food” is associated with increased desire for Although most of the physical health conditions associated with childhood obesity are preventable and can.
Physical activity is also essential for children of all ages, and regularly eating junk food does not provide the necessary nutrients children need for sufficient energy to engage in physical activity.
Junk-Food Facts. Are you a junk-food junkie? Here's what you need to know. Regular physical activity is one of the most important things you can do for your health.
If you're not sure about becoming active or boosting your level of physical activity because you're afraid of getting hurt, the good news is that moderate-intensity aerobic activity, like brisk walking, is .
Food for thought when fast food’s on the menu. The words “fast food” may conjure images of greasy burgers, salty fries and frosty shakes brimming with fat and sugar. The truth is, fast food doesn’t always mean “bad for you,” said Linda Van Horn, professor of preventive medicine at Northwestern University.