We usually use performance to represent the amount of learning that has occurred, for the process of learning must be inferred on the basis of observations of change in performance. This is the initial stage of learning and therefore is essential if the learner is to progress to the next stages with any success.
Autonomous Cognitive This is the initial stage of learning and is essential if the learner is to process successful through the other stages and is to move a stage where the skill can be performed. The cognitive stage involves formation of a mental picture of a skill.
The most efficient way is from a demonstration, which allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the performance mentally. Visual guidance is one of the best ways to make others understand, and so that the person learning can see the correct method to perform the skill.
They will then attempt to perform. The cognitive stage initially concentrates more on the skill, rather than the game.
There is a lack of control and consistency. Trial and error is also a key way to learn. Reinforcement of this can be by giving positive feedback. Questions will arise when learning skills of a sport if the skill is not correctly learnt. The learner will be confronted with some very specific, cognitively oriented problems.
It is important that the coach explains very thoroughly what is required of each athlete. Associative Learning at the associative stage means that the skill is becoming more consistent, but there are still some errors.
The simple element of the skill has been grasped however the performer still refers back to the mental picture.
This means that the performer will begin to enjoy the sport. Verbal guidance is essential as it is used in the associative stage.
Some people never exceed this phase. An example of this is a semi-professional shot-put thrower. Some performers return to the cognitive stage to refer to the mental image of the skill. Also, some professional players return from autonomous stage to the associative stage if they have an injury — they need to work hard and rise up to the expected standard of an autonomous performer.
Autonomous Learning at the autonomous stage is where the skill is done without conscious thought. The movements of the performer are fluent, consistent and athletically pleasing.
There is an advanced stage of learning where the elements of the skill have become part of long term memory and are automatically produced in response to a an appropriate stimulus. The skill is automatic. The attention of the performer focuses on the next movement, for example tactics.The theory also contradicts the quote “practices makes perfect”, Fitt’s and Posner’s theory is more like correct practice with correct technique makes perfect practice”.
Fitt’s and Posner’s () have introduced the three phases of learning to skill acquisition, . Discuss ‘Fitts and Posner’s’ Phases of Learning Essay Sample ‘Learning is a more or less permanent change in performance brought about by experience.'(Knapp ) To elevate in skill, you need to practise correctly-‘Correct practise leads to improvement’ (John Honeyrourne, Michael Hill and Helen Moors, Physical Education and sport) All aspects of sport require learning.
Learning is the process of producing relatively permanent changes in behaviour as a result of practice. ‘Fitts and Posner’ () were interested in this and the detail of the kinds of changes and phases that learners go through when acquiring a skill.
Autonomous: This is the third and last stage of learning, where the tasks are performed with little or no conscious thought.
Attention can now be paid to specialised skills, higher level tactical elements, and other considerations. In this essay I will explain Fitt’s and Posner’s phases of learning and how I would structure practises to enhance performance. By practising a skill we can become better.
Fitts and Posner theories were that everyone has to go through stages of learning, known as the cognitive, associative and autonomous stages of learning.
Fitts and Posner's Phases of Learning Essay Words | 4 Pages Fitts and Posner's Phases of Learning "Performance may be thought of as a temporary occurrence â€¦ fluctuating from time to time because of many potentially operating variables.