Our study shows that recombinant Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-5b, Wnt-7a, and Wntb are able to promote proliferation and survival of small intestinal epithelial cells IECs.
At least 19 Wnt members are present in mammals to date. The members exhibit unique expression patterns and distinct functions in development.
The Wnt family members can be divided into three distinct types based on their ability to induce transformation of the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG 23. The highly transforming members include Wnt-1, Wnt-3a, and Wnt-7a. The intermediately transforming members include Wnt-2, Wnt-5b, and Wnt-7b and nontransforming members are Wnt-4, Wnt-5a, Wnt-6, and Wnt There are at least three mechanisms, which overlap with other signaling pathways.
Second, some Frizzled receptors act through heterotrimeric G proteins to activate phospholipase C and phosphodiesterase. Wnt-5a negatively regulates B-cell proliferation, and Wnt-5a heterozygous mice develop B-cell lymphoma Furthermore, Wnt-5a inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasiveness in thyroid tumor and colorectal cancer cell lines 16 In contrast to these observations, it has also been suggested that Wnt-5a has oncogenic properties based on the findings that the Wnt-5a mRNA level is up-regulated in lung cancers, prostate cancers, and breast cancers There is a correlation between Wnt-5a expression and increased cell motility and invasiveness in melanoma cells and breast cancer cells with tumor-associated macrophages 19 Thus, the functions of Wnt-5a in human cancers are controversial and still unclear.
However, the relationship between the expression of Wnt-5a and aggressiveness of gastric cancer is not known. In this study, we found that the Wnt-5a protein is highly expressed in advanced stages of gastric cancer and that its expression is correlated with poor prognosis.
Furthermore, we showed that Wnt-5a stimulates cell migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through regulating focal adhesion complexes.
Materials and Methods Materials and chemicals. Akiyama Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japanrespectively. Kaibuchi Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japanrespectively.
Two anti-Wnt-5a antibodies were generated in rabbits by immunization with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues to and residues to of human Wnt-5a.
The former antibody recognized both Wnt-5a and Wnt-5b, whereas the latter reacted with Wnt-5a only. Wnt-5a was purified to near homogeneity by the similar procedures to the purification of Wnt-3a The details of the purification of Wnt-5a will be described elsewhere.
Anti-Wnt-3a antibody was prepared as described MKN cells stably expressing mouse Wnt-5a were generated by selection with G MKN-1 cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein GFP -paxillin were generated by selection with puromycin. Other materials were obtained from commercial sources.In addition to cell proliferation, canonical Wnt signaling is essential for dorsal–ventral patterning of the neural tube (reviewed in 33–35).
Patterning defects were previously identified in Lrp6 −/− neural tube, which displays expanded Pax3 expression at Earteensevilla.com The role of the lipid modifications, however, seems to be more complicated and divergent. WNTs carry two lipidations, a palmitate (at Cys77 of WNT-3A) and a palmitoleic acid (at Ser of WNT-3A) (Willert et al., ; Takada et al., )arteensevilla.com SFRP2 has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells and prime them for cardiac differentiation by modulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathways through JNK.
Thus, we cannot exclude that cell-specific actions are at play, which might explain the complexity of the effects of arteensevilla.com · Enhanced Wnt signaling drives increased cell proliferation, decreased differentiation and the formation of adenomas [4, 6].
In breast cancer, mutations to pathway components are rare despite the observation that β-catenin is aberrantly stabilised in over 50 % of arteensevilla.com://arteensevilla.com In this study, we used the HEK cell line to investigate the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt5a on proliferation and apoptosis in a serum starvation culture.
After Wnt3a and Wnt5a proteins were expressed, they both promoted the proliferation of HEK cells under serum starvation. · Furthermore, our demonstration that GnRH stimulates β-catenin/TCF signaling in an heterologous cell system (i.e.
the HEK model cell line) has implications for GnRH impacting on Wnt/β-catenin signaling processes in a variety of peripheral tissues and cancers that express the type I arteensevilla.com