It encompasses a wide range of theoretical perspectives, as well as a diversity of methodological approaches, that all share a concern with understanding how and why audiences engage with media, and the broader political, cultural, and economic implications of the media——audience relationship. These areas of focus distinguish audience studies from the related area of media effects, which is more explicitly focused on the impact that media content has on audiences. One could argue that the origins of audience studies extend back to the rhetoricians of ancient Greece, who incorporated an understanding of the audience into their tools for effective discourse. However, audience studies really only fully emerged as a field of research much more recently, alongside the development of commercial mass media in the early 20th century, as nascent media industries such as the newspaper industry, motion picture industry, and later broadcast industry sought to understand who was consuming their products, why they were doing so, and in some caseshow they were reacting to it.
For a history of the field, see History of media studies. Around the world[ edit ] Australia[ edit ] Media is studied as a broad subject in most states in Australiawith the state of Victoria being world leaders in curriculum development  [ citation needed ].
Media studies in Australia was first developed as an area of study in Victorian universities in the early s, and in secondary schools in the mid s. Today, almost all Australian universities teach media studies.
And, by the early s, an expanded media studies course was being taught. The course became part of the senior secondary curriculum later known as the Victorian Certificate of Education or "VCE" in the s.
It has since become, and continues to be, a strong component of the VCE. Notable figures in the development of the Victorian secondary school curriculum were the long time Rusden College media teacher Peter Greenaway not the British film directorTrevor Barr who authored one of the first media text books Reflections of Reality and later John Murray who authored The Box in the Corner, In Focus, and 10 Lessons in Film Appreciation.
Media studies does not appear to be taught in the state of New South Wales at a secondary level. In Victoria, the VCE media studies course is structured as: Media studies also form a major part of the primary and junior secondary curriculum, and includes areas such as photographyprint media and television.
Canada[ edit ] In Canada, media studies and communication studies are incorporated in the same departments and cover a wide range of approaches from critical theory to organizations to research-creation and political economy, for example.
Over time, research developed to employ theories and methods from cultural studies, philosophy, political economy, gender, sexuality and race theory, management, rhetoric, film theory, sociology, and anthropology.
Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan are famous Canadian scholars for their contributions to the fields of media ecology and political economy in the 20th century.
They were both important members of the Toronto School of Communication at the time. More recently, the School of Montreal and its founder James R. Taylor significantly contributed to the field of organizational communication by focusing on the ontological processes of organizations.
Carleton University and the University of Western Ontario, and prospectively, created Journalism specific programs or schools. A Journalism specific program was also created at Ryerson in The first communication programs in Canada were started at Ryerson and Concordia Universities.
The Communication studies department at Concordia was created in the late s. Ryerson's Radio and Television, Film, Media and Photography programs were renowned by the mid s, and its programs were being copied by other colleges and universities nationally and Internationally.
Today, most universities offer undergraduate degrees in Media and Communication Studies, and many Canadian scholars actively contribute to the field, among which: A medium is anything that mediates our interaction with the world or other humans.
Given this perspective, media study is not restricted to just media of communications but all forms of technology.
Media and their users form an ecosystem and the study of this ecosystem is known as media ecology. The electric light is pure information and it is a medium without a message unless it is used to spell out some verbal ad or a name.
For example, the content of writing is speech, the written word is the content of print, and print is the content of the telegraph.Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass arteensevilla.com studies may draw on traditions from both the social sciences and the humanities, but mostly from its core disciplines of mass communication, communication, communication sciences, and communication studies.
Published: Thu, 12 Oct The study of the audience has been very important in the media studies, since the power of the media in relation to the media audience could form how the society would work, what the public opinion would be and what political ideals would dominate.
The study of the audience has been very important in the media studies, since the power of the media in relation to the media audience could form how the society would work, what the public opinion would be and what political ideals would dominate.
A significant contribution to the ‘internationalisation’ of media studies movement now underway, the book will demonstrate (1) the multiple dimensions of audience engagement; (2) the transformation of the notion of uchi (Japanese social groups) in a media-rich environment; and (3) the role of media and ICT in the process of arteensevilla.com: Toshie Takahashi.
Audience theory is an element of thinking that developed within academic literary theory and cultural studies. With a specific focus on rhetoric, some, such as Walter Ong, have suggested that the audience is a construct made up by the rhetoric and the rhetorical situation the text is addressing.
The audience then mediate the information received directly from the media, with the ideas and thoughts expressed by the opinion leaders.
They are not being influenced .