The Austrian royal councilor Sigismund von Herberstein described in his report Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii Notes on Muscovite Affairs his observations during his travels in Moscow in and He noted that homosexuality was prevelant among all social classes. Ivan the Terrible was accused of being gay in an attempt to discredit him. When Tsar False Dmitry I was overthrown, his broken body was dragged through the streets by his genitals alongside his reputed male lover.
Donate Joseph Stalin was the second leader of the Soviet Union. His real name was Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, and he was also known as Koba a Georgian folk hero to his closest sphere.
The name "Stalin" derived from combining Russian stal, "steel" with "Lenin" originally was a conspirative nickname; however, it stuck to him and he continued to call himself Stalin after the Russian Revolution.
Stalin is also reported to have used at least a dozen other names for the purpose of secret communications, but for obvious reasons most of them remain unknown.
Childhood and early years Born in Gori, Georgia to illiterate peasant parents who had been serfs at birthhis harsh spirit has been blamed on undeserved and severe beatings by his father, inspiring vengeful feelings towards anyone in a position to wield power over him perhaps also a reason he became a revolutionary.
His mother set him on a path to become a priest, and he studied Russian Orthodox Christianity until he was nearly twenty. His involvement with the socialist movement began at seminary school, from which he was expelled in From there on he worked for a decade with the political underground in the Caucasus.
Rise to power Stalin spent his first years after the revolution building his post as general secretary secretly into the most powerful one in the communist party. Soon after, Stalin switched sides and joined with Bukharin. Together, they fought a new opposition of Trotsky, Kamenev, and Zinoviev.
From this year, he could be said to have exercised control over the party and the country although the formailities were not complete until the Great Purges of Purges and mass murders Stalin consolidated his power base with the Great Purges against his political and ideological opponents, most notably the old cadres and the rank and file of the Bolshevik Party.
Measures used against them ranged from imprisonment in work camps Gulags to assassination such as that of Leon Trotsky and Sergei Kirov. Several show trials were held in Moscow, to serve as examples for the trials that local courts were expected to carry out elsewere in the country.
There were four key trials from toThe Trial of the Sixteen was the first December ; then the Trial of the Seventeen January ; then the trial of Red Army generals, including Marshal Tukhachevsky June ; and finally the Trial of the Twenty One including Bukharin in March He also orchestrated a massive famine in the Ukraine in which an estimated 5 million people died.
It is believed that with the purges, forced famines, state terrorism, labor camps, and forced migrations, Stalin was responsible for the death of as many as 40 million people within the borders of the Soviet Union.
Stalin was up to this point very wary of the Germans, and would not permit his armies to even assume defensive positions for fear of sending the wrong signals to Hitler.
Up to the final moment, and the invasion by the Germans, he held out hope that the Molotov-Rippentrop Pact would buy him time to modernize and strengthen his military recently weakened by purges.
The Germans reached the outskirsts of Moscow in December, but were stopped by an early winter and a Soviet counter-offensive. At the battle of Stalingrad in - 43after sacrificing an estimated 1 million men, the Red Army was able to regain the initiative of the war.
With military eqipment aid of their allies the Soviet forces were able to regain their lost territory and push their over-stretched enemy back to Germany itself. By some estimates, one quarter of the Russian population was wiped out in the war.
There was, then, a huge shortage of men of the fighting-age generation in Russia. Post-war era Following World War II, Stalin continued his genocidal policies while exerting ruthless control over the Soviet Union and its satellite states until his death in Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Czech etc.
The eastern European states occupied by the Red Army were established as communist Satellite states. Shortly before he died on March 5,Stalin accused nine doctors, six of them Jews, of plotting to poison and kill the Soviet leadership.
Stalin died days before their trial was to begin [Ed: William Morrow and Co. Policies and accomplishments Stalin is often credited with successfully industrializing the Soviet Union.
What can be said without controversy is that by the time of World War II, the Soviet economy had been industrialized to the point that the Soviets could resist the German invasion.
That Stalin or his policies are to be credited for this is contended. Stalin is also generally credited with destroying the concept of communal socialism communism and with "stealing the revolution" although Lenin started this work.It also means that Putin is now the longest-serving Russian leader since Joseph Stalin, who led the Soviet Union for almost three decades between and — 10, days in total.
Useful Idiot by Mark Y. Herring Stalin's apologist: Walter Duranty, the New York Times man in Moscow, by S.J. Taylor, (New York: Oxford University Press, ).
Why was Stalin able to become leader of Russia by ? (7) In January , Lenin, the Leader of the Russian communist party died.
Trotsky, the leader of the Red army seemed like Lenin’s successor at the time as he played a major role in the civil war. Stalin led the Soviet Union to victory in World War Two over Germany. Stalin took control of Eastern Europe after World War Two and established the Soviet Bloc.
Relations with the West deteriorated and the Cold War started in So, how many people did Stalin kill? And was he really the 20th century’s most ruthless dictator? Background. Stalin – his name meant “man of steel” – was leader of .
Stalin's police photos following his arrest in , at the age of He is recognized among the Bolsheviks as an independent thinker and leader.